Endgame theory represents the cornerstone of all chess games. GMs, IMs, FMs, National Masters all know their basic endgame theory by heart.
This particular endgame has roots going back to a Frenchman by the name of Francois-Andre Danican Philidor. He was born on September 7, 1726 in Dreux, France. Philidor was exceptionally gifted in the game of chess (and music) and was then regarded as the unofficial world champion.
Have a look at this position. Yes, I've turned the board upside down to make it easier to play. Black to play and draw. What would you play?
There's no answer given here. If you don't know, just fire up Crafty or Fritz or Rybka and go over it with an endgame tablebase. Okay, if you really want to know, go to Wikipedia for the answer: Philidor's position